Monday, November 2, 2015

Electrical Conduction in Water or Aqueous Solution Contradicts Arrhenius theory of Electrolytic Dissociation

In our previous work we have shown that Ions do not conduct electrical energy in water or aqueous solution as stated in Arrhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation.
From our following work it is quite clear that the existing theory fails to explain the following
i)                   The phenomenon of electrical earthing
In the existing theory of electrical earthing the fate of electrons after it reaches earth through earthing rod/graphite (as shown in fig.1 &fig.2) remain undefined.

                More Detail:  The Phenomenon of Electrical Earthing Explained

ii)                 The conduction of direct current/alternating current  in water

           The glowing of LEDs when connected to GRC &GrD cannot be explained by the existing Arrhenius theory of electrolytic conduction (Fig.3)


More Detail: Conduction of Alternating Current in Water - A Plausible”

 How GrC &GrD shows potential difference of 949 mV when a 9 volt battery is connected to GrA &GrB and all the four electrodes/rods are placed in pure water contained in a beaker (Fig. 4).


Now to explain such electrical conduction we proposed through our work that it is not ions, as stated in Arhenius theory of electrolytic dissociation , but the Hydrated electrons that conducts electrical energy in water or aqueous  solution having resemblance to the conduction of electrical energy through delocalization of valence  electrons in  metals and  pi-electrons in graphite (non-metal).
In our present work we have shown that when a source  of 12 volts dc is connected to two Graphites GrA & GrB placed in distilled water (as shown in Fig5) and two Graphite rods GrC & GrD  are placed just opposite to GrA & GrB respectively ,the  LED(Light Emitting Diode) connected to GrC & GrD emits moderate light.

Now, according to  Arrhenius  theory of electrolytic dissociation, electrical conduction between GrA & GrB may be regarded owing to migration and neutralization of ions ,as ions have sufficient opportunity for migrating to the oppositely charged electrodes (cations towards cathode GrB and anions towards anode GrA) and getting neutralized by accepting or releasing electrons but approach of any ions to the electrically neutral rods GrC & GrD  and its subsequent  neutralization by accepting or releasing electron is quite astonishing. Thus, it is not clear how such rods GrC & GrD  give up or accepts electron having no charge i.e. in contradiction to Arrhenius theory wherein it is stated that electrolysis occurs only at the electrodes( i.e. at the cathode and anode where negative and positive terminal of a battery is connected respectively) with neutralization of ions by acceptance of electrons by cations at cathode and release of electrons by anions at the anode.
It is also not defined why and how Gr D happens to be cathode and supplies electron to the LED i.e. how ions prefer electrically neutral graphite rods to make it behave as cathode or anode remain undecided.

It is believed that cations receive electrons from the cathode and the anions give up their electrons to the anode i.e. the electrons pass from the cathode to the solution and from the solution to the anode. But how then the conduction of  electrons takes place , through the solution, in between  the electrodes (i.e. cathode to anode) remain unexplained.

We suggested the following plausible mechanism to help resolve mysteries of electrical conduction in water:
At the cathode (-ve electrode):
Step 1: Self-ionization of water
Step 2: Reduction (i.e. gain of electrons) of hydronium ion  at cathode
              2H3O+ + 2e 2H2O + H2
As the water undergoes self ionization  the inflow of electrons from the external source of emf  help neutralize positive charge on the hydronium ion (H3O+) at the cathode and formation of water and hydrogen gas. But the presence of OH- ions formed at step 1 indicate presence of some definite excess negative charge there. This excess negative charge retained  at the zone near the cathode, due to inflow of electrons from the external source,  may be regarded as hydrated electron.
At the anode (+ve electrode):
Step 1: Self-ionization of water

Step 2: Oxidation (i.e. loss of electrons) of hydroxyl ion  at anode
              4OH-- 4e 4OH 2H2O + O2
The loss of electrons to the external source of emf  by  hydroxyl ion   (OH-) at the anode result in neutralization of the negative charge on the hydroxyl ion and help formation of water and oxygen gas. But the presence of H3O+ ions formed at step 1 indicate presence of some definite excess positive charge there. This excess positive charge at the zone near the anode, due to outflow of electrons to the external source, may be regarded as hydrated proton.
Thus, in water negative charge on OH- ion that remained counterbalanced by the presence of positive charge on hydronium ion (H3O+), water being electrically neutral, becomes bare due to reduction of hydronium ion (H3O+) by the electrons from the external source at cathode. The bare OH- ion, stabilized by water molecules, acts as hydrated electron. Thus, conduction of electrical energy between two electrodes (cathode & anode) in distilled water is due to delocalization of hydrated electrons through molecular orientations of water. The molecular orientations of water being the strength behind  homeopathic dilutions.

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