Saturday, March 7, 2015

How and why Homeopathy is Scientific

Homeopathic dilutions are Scientific


                         How and why Homeopathy is Scientific

                  

i)                   Discovery & use of Homeopathy 
Hahnemann got interested in the works of Anton von Storck an Austrian physician (1731- 1803)  for his research on various herbs, including their toxicity and medicinal properties. Hahnemann following his innovative works tested even toxic substances for the effects they produced on a healthy individual, presupposing that they may heal the same ills that they caused. He later devised methods of diluting the drugs he was testing in order to lessen their toxic effects. He claimed that these dilutions, when prepared according to his technique of 'potentization' using dilution and succussion (vigorous shaking), were still effective in alleviating the same symptoms in the sick. He started using his homeopathic dilutions as medicines around 1800-1801 by nullifying the toxicity of toxics through dilutions.

               

ii)                   Determination of Avogadro’s Number:
Avogadro in 1811 gave us the concept of having the same number of molecules (or atoms for monoatomic gases) in equal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure. Though he proposed the idea of the same number of molecules in equal volume of different gases under certain conditions, he didn’t determine the actual number.
In 1865 Loschmidt found the value of Avogadro’s number by estimating the number of particles in a given volume of gas. The number is now known as the Loschmidt constant and its modern value is 2.69 x 1019 molecules per cm-3 at STP. In 1909 Jean Perrin proposed naming the constant in honour of Avogadro and estimated the constant with respect to volume. In 1910 on estimating the charge on an electron, Robert Millikan determined the Avogadro’s number accurately by dividing electrical charge per mole (i.e. 9.64853399 x 104 C mol-1 as determined by Michael Faraday in1834) by the charge on an electron.

     iii)     Mode of Action of conventional medicines:
The chemical entities / molecules are believed to convey the medicinal power in the living body in conventional medicines i.e. the medicinal molecules act directly on the living body.
             

iv)                   Challenge to homeopathy with reference to Avogadro’s Number:
It appears that  after accurate determination of Avogadro’s number molecular content of homeopathic dilution has been  calculated  and simple mathematical calculations confirmed absence of any  molecules of original substance even at 12c dilution restricting any possibility of  presence of molecules in further higher dilutions i.e. beyond  12c as shown in table1 below.

Table 1
 
Type of dilution
Solute/
Foreign content
(in ml)
Solvent i.e. Distilled water (in ml)
Total Solution/content
(in ml)
Molecules of NaCl
present
Molecules of H2O
present
Number of H2O molecules having altered molecular orientations, added to distilled H2O
Mother
Solution (M.S)
1gm
NaCl
9ml
9ml
1.0304X1022
3.0115X1023
Nil
1C
1ml of MS
9ml
10ml
1.1449X1021
3.3461X1023
3.3461 X1022 of MS
2C
1ml of 1C
99ml
100ml
1.1449X1020
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of 1C
3C
1ml of 2C
99ml
100ml
1.1449X1018
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of 2C
4C
1ml of 3C
99ml
100ml
1.1449X1016
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of 3C
5C
1ml of 4C
99ml
100ml
1.1449X1014
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of 4C
6C
1ml of 5C
99ml
100ml
1.1449X1012
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of 5C
7C
1ml of 6C
99ml
100ml
1.1449X1010
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of 6C
8C
1ml of 7C
99ml
100ml
1.1449X1008
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of 7C
9C
1ml of 8C
99ml
100ml
1.1449X1006
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of 8C
10C
1ml of 9C
99ml
100ml
1.1449X1004
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of 9C
11C
1ml of 10C
99ml
100ml
1.1449X1002
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of 10C
12C
1ml of 11C
99ml
100ml
1.1449X100
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of 11C
13C
1ml of 12C
99ml
100ml
Nil
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of 12C
*****






nC
1ml of (n-1)C
99ml
100ml
Nil
3.3461X1024
3.3461 X1022 of
(n-1)C

v)    Fundamental Contradictions in Science:

The main vehicle of homeopathic remedies being water some of  its apparent contradictions in regards to its various electrical properties in relation to generation, conduction and retention of electrical energy are presented below:
Generation:
a)    How distilled water generates emf with different metals/non-metal electrodes without chemical reactions or having concentration difference of electrode /electrolyte as shown in table 2 below
Table 2
Sl No.
Electrode pairs
Observed emf (in mV) In Distilled water
Observed emf (in mV) In human body
(A)
(B)
1
Gr – Mg
1970
1180
1500
2
Gr – Zn
1150
740
900
3
Gr – Pb
778
534
600
4
Gr – Cu
240
250
270
Gr=Graphite, Mg = Magnesium, Zn = Zinc, Pb =Lead, Cu= Copper

Generation of Electrode Potential of an Electrode

b)    How the human body generates emf with different electrodes without chemical reactions or having concentration difference electrode /electrolyte (as shown in Table2 above )

Untold Facts of Science –The Science Behind Homeopathy


c)     How three electrodes (Gr, Cu & Zn) simultaneously generates emf when placed in distilled water, wherein one electrode (Cu) acts as positive & negative electrode simultaneously as shown in figure 1 below



d)    How emf in case of Einthoven triangle is generated i.e. whether there is any chemical reaction between the human body and electrodes placed on the body or existence of any concentration gradient in respect of electrode /electrolyte.

     Orientations of Water Molecules Explains the Einthoven”


e)     How emf in the case of the Electromagnetic Flowmeter is generated
In the electromagnetic flow meter, the conductor is water, that when placed in a magnetic field is able to show induced current due to induced emf. What then generates induced current in water? It is believed that such generation of emf is due to the presence of ions in water. This suggests that ions, like electrons are also deflected in the magnetic field, thereby generating induced emf and hence induced current. Therefore, in water ions seem to flow between electrodes of Electromagnetic Flowmeter, in lieu of electrons, while generating emf in presence of a magnetic field. Further it implies that the difference in concentration of ions at the electrodes of the Flowmeter generates emf by pushing ions through the water. This shows that ions not only can move towards the opposite electrodes as in electrolysis, but also can move even to the neutral electrodes for generating emf , as in the electromagnetic flow meter!

Electromagnetic Flow Meters Generate Emf”


f)      The method used to measure emf in case of Cell membrane potential is quite amazing Fig 2.


As we are concerned with the potentials due to Na+ & K+ ions in the intracellular and extracellular region it seems quite contradictory, using such electrodes that do not contain any reversible ions. Why amalgamated electrodes, as per existing theories in chemistry are not used, certainly seems a reasonable question.
               Origin of Cell membrane Potential”

Conduction:
A)        How Dc emf  is conducted from GrA & G rB to the neutral electrodes GrC & Gr D i.e. why the ions approach to neutral electrodes for generating emf at GrC –GrD cannot be explained by the existing theories that allow only approach of any ions to its opposite electrodes while conduction i.e. cations (positive ion) to cathode(negative electrode) and vice versa. Fig3

        The Key to Homeopathic Dilution”


B)   How AC emf  is conducted from GrA&GrB to all the neutral electrodes 1,2,3&4 i.e. why the ions approach to neutral electrodes for generating emf at Gr1 to Gr4  cannot be explained by the existing theories. How the emf is generated at the four electrodes simultaneously is also surprising. Moreover ,if the generation of emf at electrodes Gr1 to Gr4 is owing to ionization and subsequent migration of ions then why there is so much difference in generation of emf,Gr1-Gr2=7.8voltsAC while Gr1-Gr4=15.3volts AC as shown in figure 4

Conduction of Alternating Current in Water - A Plausible”  


C)    How electrical conduction takes place through nerves by polarization-depolarization- repolarization, remain unexplained  As when both the graphite electrodes are held by hand and the current is said to pass through the human body , more precisely through the nerve the plausible electrical condition inside the nerve is depicted in Fig 5.
It appears that the positive graphite electrode (Gr B) of the circuit will repel the positive charges outside the membrane and will initiate an action potential therein. Thereafter, it should propagate rendering negative charges at the outside of the membrane as per existing theory. On the other hand the negative charge on the graphite electrode (GrA) of the circuit will attract the positive charges on the membrane and hence inhibit cropping up of any negative charges in its vicinity at the outside of the membrane. Thus, any possibility of further propagation of the action potential initiated at Gr B will be restricted. Therefore, how the electrical energy proceeds remains unexplained. Moreover when nerve itself contains sufficient water to carry the electrical impulse why the conduction through water is not considered !

D)  How alternating current(AC) is conducted through water while earthing /grounding.

The Phenomenon of Electrical Earthing Explained”


 

E)   How existing theory help explain conduction of electrical energy  through even egg shell as shown in figure 6 below. The Gr1-Gr2 that show emf of 21mV before passing of current through Gr3-Gr4 show emf of about 669mV after passing of current through Gr3-Gr4 (i.e.about 12volts DC from Adapter)

The Transmission of Sensory Impulses as it Relates to the”

Retention:
A) How DC emf is retained even in distilled water i.e. distilled water is able to hold electrical charge similar to that of a rechargeable battery / accumulators Fig 7.


Water the Magic Liquid: Retaining Electrical Energy


B)          The retention of electrical energy in water is even possible without application of  any external emf (i.e. even without passing of current from any external source) as found in the following experiment.
In this experiment a pair of graphite electrodes (GrA & GrB) & a Zinc (Zn) electrode are simultaneously dipped in pure /distilled water. The emf’s of GrA – GrB  is found to be -13mV Fig 8A.Thereafter the Zn electrode is connected externally with a metal wire with the graphite electrode GrB (Fig 8B).This process is allowed to continue for 3 minutes and thereafter both the external connection and Zinc electrode are removed (Fig 8C). The emf generated by the pair of graphite electrodes, one minute after removal of external wire and Zn, is found to be 89 mV i.e. there is increase in emf of about {89-(-13)}=102mV for the said graphite pair.









The Science Behind Retention of Electrical Energy by Water

 C) How AC emf alters DC emf of a pair of electrodes in distilled water as shown in the following experiment . The DC emf of Gr & Zn electrodes placed in about 20ml of distilled water is found to be 802mV (initial emf) . The two terminals of the transformer producing 50 volts AC (actually 56 volts AC) are then connected to Gr & Zn and alternating current is allowed to pass for 3 minutes. The final emf of Gr & Zn is recorded as 674mV i.e decrease in emf of (674-802)= -128mV


                        





vi)                       Explanations to the fundamental contradictions in science:
All the stated electrical properties of water remain unexplained by the existing theories of science. We explained the same considering the fact that:
a)        Orientations of water molecules change according to induced electrical strain .

1Solutions Ionic or Non-Ionic Conduct & Retain Electrical ..

              2)Water the Magic Liquid: Retaining Electrical Energy


b)       Water re-orients its molecules as per necessity during conduction or retention or generation of electrical energy.

              Orientations of Water Molecules - The Force ...


c)     It is not ions but delocalization of electrons in water molecules that conduct electrical energy through orientations of water molecules.

             Delocalization of Electrons Through Orientations of ...

vii)                 Mode of action of Homeopathic remedies: The electrical energy of a substance is actually conveyed through molecular orientations of water by inducing electrical strain therein as shown by us in our following works ;
a)    In “The homeopathic dilution –a new explanation” (www.hanp.net: Vol. XXI /SummerFall2008) wherein
we inferred that   i) Mother tincture differs from water.
ii)                 Water differs from the different potencies of a crude 
             substance.
iii)               Different potencies of  a substance differ from each   
            Other
iv)               The same potencies prepared from different substances,  
                          differ from each other 

     
b)    The electrical energy of substances –the secret of homeopathy
       ( www.hanp.net Vol XXII /volumes/winter2009 ) wherein
we inferred that it is not the matter but the electrical property of the matter that is responsible for creating a change in the orientations of dipoles of water molecules, consequently resulting in various homeopathic medicines and their various potencies.

viii)                    Micro current therapy & its mode of Action :

a)       Micro current therapy i.e. supplying of electrical currents less than 1micro ampere (1µA), to nerves using MENS(Micro current Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulator) through electrodes placed on the skin was especially used in sports medicine but owing to its outstanding efficacy it now has extensive use even in chronic cases. 

b)    The micro current is often used to relieve pain instead of  analgesics (i.e. paracetamol ,  NSAID etc). It means that the pain can be get relieved either by molecules (i.e. by molecules of analgesics) or without any molecules (i.e. by applying suitable electrical energy only) as found in homeopathic dilutions. It is thus evident that application of suitable electrical energy has the same effect as chemicals; the mechanism however may differ. It is believed that as the micro currents used are in close proximity to the body’s natural electrical current, at cellular level they are well capable in restoring its normal activity.
Now here we conclude How and Why Avogadro’s Number does not Limit efficacy of the Homeopathic Remedies.
#       Homeopathic dilutions have been used since 1800 and remained unchallenged until determination of Avogadro’s number.
#       Homeopathic remedies were challenged only after the determination of Avogadro’s number by Millikan in 1910, a number of years after homeopathy came into use.
#       A mathematical calculation based on Avogadro’s Number led to the conclusion that homeopathic dilution must be nothing but placebo after homeopathy had already been used for 109 years !!
#       It is not proper to discount homeopathy simply on the basis of Avogadro’s number without clarifying the existing fundamental contradictions in science as detailed above.
#       In conventional medicines the molecules are believed to convey the medicinal power in the living body but in homeopathic dilutions it is not the molecules of medicine but the  electrical strain induced in the vehicle, by the  substance, that conveys the medicinal power of a substance in the living body.
#       When preparing serial homeopathic dilutions the electrical strain of the latter differs from the former dilution in regards to difference in molecular orientations of water (Table1) but cannot be determined due to non-availability of any such scientific instruments and for which the homeopathic dilution cannot be held responsible.
 The homeopathic dilution –a new explanation (www.hanp.net: Vol. XXI/SummerFall2008)

#       The mode of action of the micro current therapy and homeopathic dilution seems to be same i.e. without any molecules and exclusively due to micro current /electrical strain induced at the cellular level.
Thus for the reasons cited above we suggest homeopathic dilution to be independent of Avogadro’s number in regards to presence of active medicinal molecules and instead dependent on electrical strain of water molecules induced by the  medicinal molecules.

Avogadro's Number Does Not Limit the Efficacy of Homeopathic remedies

 
Now, as Avogadro’s number does not disregard efficacy of homeopathic remedies it is obvious that Homeopathic dilutions are Scientific.





3 comments:

JoJo S said...

I just found this website and I am supper excited about it. I keep hearing about proof of homeopathy but I haven't found anything but stories about how homeopathy has worked on people. I know homeopathy works but talking to other people without sounding like I'm just believing hearsay is really hard to communicate without sounding like a kook. Scientific proof is what I've been looking for. Thank you for these posts. I'd also love to see a series of videos that I could share via YouTube to prove that Homeopathy is based on science and not just a placebo. Thanks again for this great info.

Md.Ruhul Amin said...

Madam, Thanks for visiting our website. Please also request your friends to have a look to our website and judge Homeopathy rationally considering the contradictions persisting in the fundamentals of science especially in regards to conduction, retention and generation of electrical energy by water. Please also help people to understand and use homeopathy for safer future.

Mahesh Sharma said...

Thanks For Sharing Info About such a great equipment which is used in industrial devolopment please right more about on this topic. Can you Please write more most related to Water Flow Measurement